1. Explain the importance of water resources in the economic development of Nepal.
Ans: Water is one of the most important resources in the world. It is compulsory for living beings. In spite of many importance, there are some importance are as follows:-
- Development of agriculture:-
Agriculture is the backbone of the Nepalese economy. And the irrigation is the backbone of agriculture. Irrigation is essential to produce a large number of food crops, cash crops, fruits, etc.
2. Development of industries:-
Hydroelectricity is the heartbeat of any form of modern industry. It is cheaper than other resources of energy such as coal, gas, etc. The use of hydroelectricity makes the cost of products cheaper which means and available everywhere.
3. Development of transportation and communication:-
Energy generated from water resources helps to run electric means of transportation and communication like trolley bus, cable car, ropeway, railway, TV, radio, email, fax, etc.
4. Development of tourism industry:-
Nepal is rich in rivers, lakes, ponds, waterfalls, etc. These are one of the main attractions of Nepal for the tourism industry. So, water resources help to develop of the tourism industry.
5. Preservation of forest resources:-
The development of hydroelectricity substitutes the use of firewood which is one of the causes of rapid deforestation. In this way, water resources help to preserve forest resources.
2. Discuss the problems of hydroelectricity development in Nepal.
Ans: The major problems of water resources development are below:-
- Shortage of technical manpower:-
It is insufficient for highly skilled technicians in our country in comparison to its requirement. Therefore, it compels our country to hire foreign technicians to operate projects of hydroelectricity, irrigation, and even for drinking water. So, the development of water resources is very expensive.
2. Inadequate transport facility:-
Since most of the electricity and irrigation projects are in hilly regions there can’t be work successfully because there is no accessibility of transportation.
3. Lack of capital:-
The development of water resources will be limited due to the low rate of PCI, national savings, investments, production, etc.
4. Limited market potential:-
There is a cheap price per unit of electricity in India rather than India and due to high Himalayans on the way of China, it is impossible to export there. So, the electricity’s market is limited in Nepal.
5. Shortage of scientific equipment:-
Equipment like scientific tools, machines, sufficient capital, efficient human resources, and modern technologies are needed for development but they are also lacking in Nepal.
3. Describe the importance of mineral resources.
Ans: Mineral resources are those resources that are found in mines such as iron, copper, limestone, marble, and mica, etc.
The importance of mineral resources are briefly discussed below:-
- Development of transport and communication:-
Various mineral resources produce and operate modern means of transport (air, surface, and water transport) and communication (radio, television, newspaper, etc.)
2. Establishment of industries:-
Proper utilization of available mineral resources helps to establish the key industries like steel, iron, copper, chemical, petroleum, etc.
3. Sources of foreign currency earning:-
Nepal is rich in different types of minerals like Iron, copper, petroleum, etc. We can get a large amount of money by exprting these minerals. In this way, it can be one of the sources of foreign currency earning.
4. Modernization of agriculture:-
The establishment of mine-based industries help to produce modern agricultural tools, fertilizers, etc. It helps for the large scale production and modernization of agriculture.
5. Generation of employment opportunities:-
Unemployment is becoming a chronic problem in Nepal. The establishment of many industries produce many employment opportunities in the nation.
4. What are the problems of mineral resource utilization in Nepal?
Ans:- Since Nepal is one of the developing countries, it has so many difficulties in its resource utilization. Some of the major problems in the way to utilize minerals in Nepal are as follows:-
- Low rate of capital information:-
There is the necessity of a large amount of capital investment to research and develop mineral resources. We can’t do anything without capital in the development of mineral resources. So, the lack of capita became the largest problem in Nepal.
2. Lack of advanced technology:-
Actually, the development of mineral resources requires highly perfect technicians, modern equipment, and advanced technology. There is a lack of those types of human resources and technology. And the purchase of expensive technologies is beyond the capacity of Nepal.
3. Expensive and inadequate supply of energy:-
Exploitation and exploration of mineral resources demand reliable and low-cost energy. However, the supply of energy like electricity and petroleum products in Nepal is inadequate as well as expensive.
4. Insufficient infrastructures:-
Mostly mineral resources are available in hilly and Himalayan regions. There are no facilities for basic infrastructures like transportation and communication. So, it is one of the problems in the development of mineral resources.
5. Limited scope of market:-
Nepal’s products can’t stand in front of the products of China and India in terms of price, quality, and quantity. So, there is a limited scope of the market.
Principles of Economics 11
We hope it helped you to know a little bit about the natural resources of Nepal.